2016年4月28日 星期四

戴明博士在1950年代日本上課照片 (約50歲)

這是W. Edwards Deming (戴明,當時日本的漢字用"德明",以後採音譯ウィリアム・エドワーズ・デミング)博士在1950年代日本上課照片 (約50歲)。黑板上寫的是"統計品管" (生產系統的各階段全面應用統計思維的品質管制)。
The W. Edwards Deming Institute
‪#‎TBT‬ Dr. Deming would speak to auditoriums filled with thousands of business leaders in Japan in the 1950's, and the crowds were so large that at times it was standing room only.
‪#‎deming‬ ‪#‎deminginstitute‬ ‪#‎quality‬

2016年4月21日 星期四

Disciples Hear The Gospel According To Deming:1970年11月23~27日台灣; 1988.3.20 費城

23日:兩單位在台北自由之家晚宴戴明博士 (高禩謹理事長等賓客14人);戴明博士戴中華民國品質管制學會會徽。
25日: 台北陽明山高階主管座談,人數待確認。高禩謹理事長送戴明博士冰鼎紀念品。
27日: 高雄品質管制研討會,約160名學生,全數著西裝。
(參考:戴久永老師贈的戴明博士著《品管九講》台北:中國生產力中心/中華民國品質管制學會 共同發行,1972年6月)
紀念 劉振、高禩瑾兩位恩師 漢清講堂 March 27,2016 回眸東海IE 歲月:師‧友‧課程 1975級,工工系第9屆,畢業生約40名 (1971年入校時20名,後來進出約20多名) 。他們每個人的經歷和故事,都是獨特的。 東海的歲月中,最受益的卻是一些兼課老師。

Dr. W. Edwards Deming 和 The W. Edwards Deming Institute 都分享了 1 條連結
W. Edwards Deming came to Philadelphia last week to preach to the…


500 Area Disciples Hear The Gospel According To Deming

POSTED: March 20, 1988
W. Edwards Deming came to Philadelphia last week to preach to the converted.
There he was, American industry's new cult hero, the Mike Schmidt of management, the Bogart of business, telling 500 managers from Philadelphia- area companies that they were going about their business all wrong, and they were nodding their heads in agreement and lining up afterward to have him autograph copies of his book.
It's a common scene at the 24 to 30 seminars Deming gives throughout the United States each year to expound his management methods.
Those methods command a lot of respect, after all, credited as they are with aiding the post-war transformation of Japanese manufactured goods from schlock to high-quality items that could compete with, and even outclass, those made in the United States.
Eight years ago, Deming was belatedly discovered by an American industry desperate to recapture the ground and prestige it had lost to his star pupils.
Since then he has acquired a reverential and growing following among American managers. That following is particularly big and reverential in Philadelphia. The area was a prime candidate for some sort of savior after losing hundreds of thousands of manufacturing jobs in the 1970s, and in 1983 the Greater Philadelphia Chamber of Commerce began spreading the Deming gospel to local companies.
Only a fraction of the area's companies have been exposed to Deming's methods, and not all of those are actively implementing them. Deming himself warns that his principles are not "instant pudding" and that a company may spend 10 or 15 years implementing his principles before it begins to see quantifiable results.
But ask Rohm & Haas Co., ask Brooks Manufacturing Corp., ask Hercules Inc., ask the owner of the Valley Forge Convention Center (in which Deming was preaching his message last week), ask any of them about the power of that gospel, and the answer comes back: "Amen. What a difference it has brought to our lives!"
Frequently, the difference is expressed in quality-of-worklife terms that are felt to be important but whose benefits can't be measured directly: communication and cooperation have improved, executives say, or employees are happier and working better because they now have a say in deciding how to do their jobs.
But a few Philadelphia-area companies say the Deming difference is demonstrably flowing through to their bottom lines.
* At Hercules, a Deming-style team in the coatings and additives division identified a potential for $2 million in yearly cost savings.
* Brooks Manufacturing, a Philadelphia company that makes electrical-power- surge protectors for the electronics industry, estimates it saved $25,000 and created 12 new jobs by using Deming quality-improvement methods.
* At Valley Forge Plaza, which includes the Valley Forge Convention Center and two hotels, group sales are up 43 percent this year as a result of a switch to Deming principles, says developer and owner Leon Altemose.
* Rohm & Haas estimates that it gained or retained about $100 million worth of business and realized about $20 million in cost savings in 1986 alone, thanks to its implementation of Deming principles.
Even the Internal Revenue Service Center in Northeast Philadelphia, where there were massive processing problems a few years ago, is using Deming methods to cut down on errors and processing times and make employees happier in the bargain.
What these organizations and perhaps a few dozen other local Deming practitioners have adopted, and what Deming was here last week to expound, is a way of running a company based on teamwork between workers and managers and a continual search to improve the product or service.
Most of them have been introduced to the Deming principles through seminars, workshops and roundtables conducted by the Philadelphia Area Council for Excellence (PACE), an arm of the Chamber of Commerce.
The Chamber decided to focus its economic-development efforts on spreading Deming's message at the urging of Mary Ann Gould, a Deming disciple. Then president of Janbridge Inc., a circuit-board manufacturer, Gould argued that it made more sense to help existing businesses get stronger than to attract new companies, because "without companies that are sound and prospering, all our economic-development programs are just replacing one company with another as they drop off."
Persuaded, the Chamber established PACE, which sponsors an ever-growing list of programs, including an annual visit from the master himself to present his four-day seminar.
The message last week was the same as always: Workers want to do their jobs right and have very sound ideas about how to improve the quality of products. It's management that's the stumbling block.
He shook his head at the idea of merit raises, saying they encourage people to do what pleases their bosses rather than to seek out what actually needs to be done to improve the system.
He warned that organizations can't function properly unless they wipe out the fear that keeps employees from pointing out bottlenecks and suggesting improvements.
He conducted his famous red-bead experiment, used to demonstrate that defective products are created by a poor system rather than by poor workers, and that improvements in quality can only come from analyzing what is wrong with the system and changing it.
What this means in practice can be something as small as the incident described in a Wednesday afternoon workshop by John Lawson of Sun Co.'s Lube Service Center in Marcus Hook.
"We created a team to see how the Deming processes would work and got a 40 percent reduction in damaged goods in the warehouse," he said. "There was no major impact, but it proved to us that the processes worked."
It can be something as small as a new policy at the IRS center to make replacing files a higher priority, so that records are where they should be when the next user needs them.
It can be something with benefits as unquantifiable as getting employees who will use a new production plant involved in the design, as is happening at Microcircuit Engineering Corp. in Mount Holly.
Or it can be something as dramatic as Rohm & Haas' success in supplanting two competitors, one of them a Japanese company, as the supplier to Pioneer Video of polymers used to make video disks.
When Rohm & Haas first took samples of its polymers to Pioneer, a California subsidiary of a Japanese company, they were rejected because of contamination. In the pre-Deming days, "we might just have said, 'Well, that's as good as we can make it,' " and dropped the matter, says Jim Dunn, business manager for plastic resins.
Instead, a team from the plastics group reviewed the entire polymer- manufacturing process, discovered where the contamination occurred and eliminated the problem with new equipment and new processes.
The result was a product that was consistently better than that of the American competitor and frequently better than that of the Japanese supplier, both of which were dumped by Pioneer in favor of Rohm & Haas. The business brings in sales of about $1 million a year, and Rohm & Haas may be able to double that by selling to companies in Japan, if shipping problems can be solved.
These successes stand as beacons in a sea of old-style management.
One group of employees at last week's seminar said their company gives lip service to Deming principles but no real support. Another group, from a Fortune 500 company that publicly flaunts its Deming involvement, complained that customers still frequently don't get their orders on time and that employees even get their paychecks late.
One research director, from another company that claims to be a staunch Deming proponent, lamented that he is forced to rank his staff, with the lowest-ranked liable to be laid off at any time. "How can they expect to attract qualified people under those conditions?" he said.
Despite such discouraging tales, Mary Ann Gould, the woman who started it all, is convinced that Philadelphia companies are on the brink of seeing it happen.
"You are seeing results in certain pockets," she says. "And these people are going out and talking to let others know what they've experienced. We've started to create a group of champions" who will, in their turn, bring new believers into the Deming fold.

2016年4月2日 星期六


這篇文章的修正版,發表在  《台灣戴明圈》 ,台北:華人戴明學院, 2008

Dr W. E. Deming

引言 有機會向各位報告深表榮幸。我今天不會向你們高談統計方法,我想這要留給統計學家們,我要講對於製造與銷售真正最重要的一些問題,如何應用種種統計術來解決此等難題,以及你們如何善用這些技術。演說後我會回答諸位的問題。
透 過全球市場創造更多的業務和銷售 首先我得聲明我不是一魔術師。我不是經濟學家,不是精於業務銷售者,不是位研究人員。同樣的,我不是製造商。儘管如此,我深信各種統計技術和它們關聯實務 對於諸君是有用的。身為一名統計學者,我與你們全體所碰到種種問題有深入接觸,而且有幸與許多背景不同的專家、統計學者、業務人員等合作過研究。上述的同 事們包括各式各樣的製造商、技術人員、大學教授、以及全世界最大規模、最成功運作的一些商務協會。
當 然,諸君都聽過利用統計方法來作產品品質管理。然而如果你們不懂得它,或是不支持銷售研究,那麼「利用統計方法來作產品品質管理」就沒用了,如此你們的業 務也不會擴張。 我必須指出,我不是說你只要能將工廠作的產品銷售出去就沒事了。這年代光是售貨是不過的。如果你有這樣想法,明年你可能想大量銷售,起碼要想盡可能賣的愈 多。英文「marketing」並不只意味銷售;事實上它是一門科學,旨在了解這些事:那些每月都買這些產品的人是些怎麼樣的人們呢?思考一下它們,他們 還會不會再買,再光顧的理由是什麼。我稍後會再談這方面的問題,現在我要繼續討論利用統計方法來作產品品質管理。

當年由美國標準學會(ASA,現在改名「美國標準暨技術學院」)出版 一本小冊標準,以簡易的話將 利用統計方法來作產品品質管理的原理,廣泛的給技術人員解釋,讓他們了解。
同 樣的,如果沒有有效的統計學上的知識的應用,它也無從發揮,而現代的日本也無法在產品上、產品品質上、或產品的一致性上有所提昇。你們要造就、找出那些能 兼具統計知識而又富技術上經驗的人來經營工廠,才算美事。此外,為了協助你們的技術人員,你必須尋求數理統計師來當他們的顧問。
話又說回來,不管 你們的技術人員多優秀,你們畢竟是領導者,你們的技術人員要能夠在產品的品質和一致性上有所改善的話,需要你們努力帶領這些方面的提昇。因此,第一步要從 經營者們開始。首先,你們的技術人員和工廠員工們都要能知道,你對於提昇產品的品質和一致性是極為熱切希望的,而且你對於產品的品質是有責任感的。
如 果這方面你只空口說話,必定一事無成。實際行動是很重要的。如果你在產品的改善產品品質上以身作則,顯現你的熱忱,你的產品品質之經營管理一定會提昇。所 謂對產品的品質是有責任感,意思是要能盡最大可能保證你工廠的產品。盡最大可能保證產品的品質並不是空口號,而是品質之經營管理能落實。你在作產品的品質 管理時,要將你的品質之經營管理之方法等作成管制圖來當指標,因為對於消費者的產品品質之保證,再沒比這一方法更好了。
你要是能以身作則,顯現你 把產品的品質和一致性認真對待,並對產品品質負全責,你的技術人員們就會有機會將品質管理落實生效。不過,工廠的產品品質管理無法在一天之內就實作完成。 它需要一段長時間才行。你首先要以小規模方式試作,你一旦認為這樣子有價值,就將它擴展。產品品質管理的過程,是由統計和製造技術所構成的,它的歷程漫長 而又累人。
該 產品必須與其市場配合。產品品質必須適應該市場。如果產品品質過高,或是過低,就稱不上是適宜的。如果產品品質太好了,而它的價格相當高,那麼只有少數的 一些群體的人才買得起。再者,如果品質太低,那麼僅管價格能壓低,人們買過後還是不會再次「惠顧」,從而生意不久就會清淡下來。因此,為了作成最有用處的 產品,我們必須作種種市場調查,來了解市場需要什麼種類的品質或設計。猶有進者,透過種種市場調查,我們必須確定採購者願意用什麼價錢來買它。
再 就這主題多談一下,之所以必須不斷地做市場調查,因為它對經濟的生產是有用處的。你每月必須生產大約同樣多的「對的」產品才行,不然你就達不到經濟的生 產。如果你的產出中有一成或二成五銷不出去的話,你的利潤就沒啦。再者,如果你無法順利地滿足許多的訂單的話,你的利潤就無法最大化。基於上述的考量,為 了達到經濟的生產,我們必須從事市場調查。根據我們所做的市場調查,才能站在每月有穩定的產品銷售這一基礎上。然後你可以知道那一些類型的人(譬如說工 人、農民、或生意人)需要你產品;或者他們光顧過你一次,可是對你產品保持距離,不再光顧;或者買過產品的人對它們是否滿意;又假如他們有所不滿話,為什 麼會如此呢?總之,透過市場調查這一手段,你對於廣告、產品的設計、定價的變更和生產,都能有效地管理。

該 輪是沿著「關於產品品質的諸概念」和「對於產品品質的責任感」這條線向前轉動的。該輪的四步進(stages)彼此相互連接而無法分出始點和終點,這一事 實極為重要。這也是我將它畫成圓的理由。諸君對於產品的設計和測試務必不斷精益求精,無時或已。你的產品上市之後,而你對於使用者認為其是否有用途、看法 如何等做過調查之後,你要進行產品再(重新)設計。產品品質之管理是永無止息的。我希望諸君能善用產品品質管理,一直生產出更好的產品,使得產品不斷地更 為買者所喜愛、再設計得更適用,然後再找出更好、更便宜的生產方法。這樣做的話,肯定會使買方獲利,而你們也一樣會受益。
對 於市場調查的特別建議 今年為1950年。我們目前在諸市場和種種製造技術上,與1935年相當不同。日本最近的變貌或比其他國家更甚。話又說回來,世界的每一商業人士莫不面臨 需要種種新方法的局面。在過去,即在1935年和這以前,生意好做得很,只要能製成想賣的,就賣得出去,不管是內銷或外銷,大抵不是問題,僅管有人生意興 隆而有人不起色。當時的產銷步驟是這樣: